martes, 20 de julio de 2010

Ao redor de James Lovelock... ou "Gaia or Earth is alive" por Pablo Romero.

Xa o indicabamos nos primeiros días de curso, lembrando ao galardoado na II edición do Premio Fonseca. A figura de James Lovelock e as súas opinións deron lugar a un debate aberto no grupo "Arquimedes en Ourense 09-10". Pablo Romero -á parte de outras moitas cuestións- traballou sobre a idea de Gaia e presentou este artigo:
Gaia or Earth is alive. Designed by James Lovelock in 1969 and championed by Lynn Margulis, the “Gaia hypothesis” is a scientific model that postulates that life promotes and keeps the conditions to be suitable for itself. So, the biosphere behaves like a coherent whole-life where its characteristics feature of self-regulation delivery their appropriate conditions of temperature, chemical composition, and salinity in the oceans.
The idea of Earth as a lively entity was present in almost that all phases in history. The animism had a fort and special establish in the oldest cultures of hunter-gatherer. Everything that us surrounds is lively and it has soul, even the cosmos arrives at be seen as a group that by itself life would possess. Greeks and Romans (origin of what today call Western civilization) designated to the mother Earth such as a goddess Gea. Thus, Tales of Mileto compares our planet with an animal, and for Anaximandro and Pitágoras, the Earth is an organization.
In the Renaissance, the idea continues thanks to Gilbert and of the great astronomer Kepler; and even during the Modernism or the Romanticism, with representatives as Goethe, Beethoven or Newton. Specifically, was Hutton who proposed the creation of a new science, Geophysiology (physiology of Earth), and he worked supposing to the Earth as a superorganisation. Later Vernadsky will employ the idea of biosphere. All of this will be the previous scientific ideas to the theory of Lovelock.
In short, from the Renaissance it will appear two possible and antagonic views about the world: the organical (organic perception former of things, that still lasts currently) and the mechanistic (that appears with the development emerged from the Industrial Revolution). First authors fluctuated simultaneously between both visions. It was this the case of Kepler and Newton in the physical sciences, or of Lamark and Darwin in the biological ones, that move forward in the mechanical conception of the world, but without leaving never sideways the vision organical. In what adverts to the contemporary period, triumphs the neodarwinismo, and just non scientific models seem oppose to its postulates. It will be at the start of the twentieth century when Vernadsky agrees the scientific bases of the vision that, later and without knowing, will spread Lovelock. Among other things, said that the biosphere gives suitable means for the existence of the life and that, all in all, “the life is needed to herself to remain lively”. By the end of the decade of 1960, James Lovelock worked for the NASA in the construction project of a system that allowed detecting life in Mars. Giving him returns to the issue, found out of the red planet could not have abundance of life, then if thus was, this would modify the ones owned by its environment radically. Its atmosphere was chemically lifeless and the conclusion of Lovelock was that in Mars could not be life.
The impact of "Gaia hypothesis" on the cultural life. The real impact and meaning of the hypothesis is being arrived not only at science but also at literature, psychology, economy, policy, ethics or philosophy.
Starting from ideas of Lovelock, emerged a lot of studies, conferences, books and additions to the original theory. Its implications cover all the human knowledge in so broad aspects as the ethics, the philosophy, the psychology, the economy or the policy, all of them views from Gaia. Respect of the policy and of the culture, the most radical proposal that emanates of the hypothesis is the notion of that Gaia possesses conscience.
Its influence also covers the scientific literature, with writers as Fritjof Capra with its work The Website of Life, Stephan Harding with Cheer up you Earth: Science, Intuition, and Gaia, in addition to be a central topic in some of Isaac Asimov's works; the music, with American composers as Nathan Currier and James Taylor, or the Spanish group of heavy metal/folk rock Magician of Oz, who has written two songs: "Gaia" and "Gaia's Revenge", in which the alteration of the Earth's natural balance is condemned by the human being. The film world and of the television, with movies such as a Virus, End Fantasy or the very recent Avatar (directed by James Cameron and that takes place in a so-called “planet Pandora”, in which all organisations have a biological ability to connect their minds. The natives of this planet advert to “Eywa”, a sort of Mother of the Earth. A reference is done in the movie to the hypothesis Gaia when a character, praying to Eywa, pronounces: “killed their mother”). Also in TV-series as Edge of Darkness, Eureka or in some chapters of the series of animation South Park.
Grazas, Pablo.
A fotocomposición, por suposto, de Luchi. Grazas, Luchi, por todo o teu traballo.

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